By Alan R. Katritzky
(from preface)Volume forty seven of Advances in Heterocyciic Chemistry is, in contrast to such a lot volumes, a monograph and bargains with the quantitative elements of electro-philic substitution of heterocycles. it truly is written through Roger Taylor of the collage of Sussex, Brighton, England, and your editor with one bankruptcy contributed via Ross Grimmett of the college of Otago in New Zealand. it's was hoping that this survey of the full region of electrophilic substitution of heterocycles, protecting because it does semiqualitative in addition to thoroughly quantitative features, can be of substantial support to staff within the field.As is basic for volumes of our sequence, no topic index is incorporated. as a substitute, there's a very distinctive contents from which we think it will likely be attainable to trace down such a lot issues. after all, this quantity should be listed in quantity fifty one. for you to be the subsequent ''index volume'' of the sequence and should conceal Volumes 46-50, simply as quantity forty six coated Volumes 41-45 and quantity forty coated Volumes 1-40.
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Heteroaromatic compounds may have several basic centers, and if this is the case then the rate profile can be more complicated, as illustrated in Fig. 4 [67JCS(B)1219]. As in Fig. 3, the unit and zero slopes are idealized, and in practice the factors of decreasing free base concentration and increasing rate do not exactly cancel, so that fractional slopes are obtained. 5 shows the more complicated rate profile for deuteriation of 4-aminopyridine at 107°C [67JCS(B)1219]. Below an H, value of about - 6, exchange occurs on the first conjugate acid (ring nitrogen proton- Sec.
Combining these equations gives Eq. 9), which can be used directly for correcting pK, values. 9) Sec. 13. (a) Base with pK,>O. (b) Base with pK, NITRATION [Sec. E precursor for the nitronium ion. The current evidence seems irreconcilable with, on the one hand, both nitric acid-sulfuric acid and nitric acidacetic anhydride giving fairly similar toluene/benzene rate ratios [71JCS(B)1256],and similar ortho/para ratios for a range of alkylbenzenes (72RTC831); whereas against this argument for a common electrophile must be set the fact that substrates like anilides, ethers, and biphenyl give abnormally high ortho/para ratios with the latter medium.
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry by Alan R. Katritzky
NITRATION [Sec. E precursor for the nitronium ion. The current evidence seems irreconcilable with, on the one hand, both nitric acid-sulfuric acid and nitric acidacetic anhydride giving fairly similar toluene/benzene rate ratios [71JCS(B)1256],and similar ortho/para ratios for a range of alkylbenzenes (72RTC831); whereas against this argument for a common electrophile must be set the fact that substrates like anilides, ethers, and biphenyl give abnormally high ortho/para ratios with the latter medium.